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Teacher: Arynn Mckenzie
Subject/Lesson Title: Washington State History: Treaties and Conflict
Grade: 7

Curriculum Context/Rationale: This lesson is part of a three part series on the Washington territory.  The first weeks of Washington State history focuses on geographic features and first nations living around the Salish Sea as well as early explorers. This lesson is made to correspond with the tribal sovereignty piece of the standard. Because this standard is new, legislated in 2006, there is little to no prepared material for 7th graders. The content was adapted from The Washington State Historical Society’s The treaty trail: US – Indian treaty councils in the Northwest specifically “Understanding Treaties” lessons I & II.

EALRs/GLEs/PEs/Common Core Standards:
1.1.1 Understands how key ideals set forth in fundamental documents, including the Washington State Constitution and tribal treaties, define the goals of our state.
4.2.1 Understands and analyzes how individuals and their movements have shaped Washington State
4.1.2 Explaining how the following themes and developments help to define eras in Washington State history from 1854 to the present: Territory and treaty-making (1854—1889)

Short Term Learning Targets/Objective(s) for This Lesson:
SWBAT define/explain reservation, treaty, negotiate, sovereignty,
SWBAT relate the story of tribal conflict and war to an “essential question” of Social Studies (See attached)
SWBAT Identify (list) 3 sources of conflict and explain why a factor was a source of conflict

Language Objectives: Students will define and use vocabulary: reservation, treaty, negotiate, sovereign, dialect

Assessment Plan: Because of the nature of the lesson there is only the end assessment of the lesson.

Summative Assessment:
Quiz given to Ss at end of lesson-
What is a treaty? Define in your own words. (Something like: An agreement between two sovereign nations.)
When were the treaties signed? 1854 – 1856
What is a reservation? A reservation is a piece of land set aside for the use of native people by a treaty.
Name 3 factors that contributed to the conflicts between native peoples and settlers. Pick 1 and write a sentence about why it was important.

Activating Prior Knowledge, Intro, & Communicating Learning Targets:
15 minutes.
“Alright guys this is new. Today you are adding to you are adding to your textbooks. This is knowledge that you need to know but is not included in textbooks yet so we are going to add a page to the book. Soon my lovely assistants will be passing out the template for page 91 and a half. But first we are going to get some terms straight these are words we’ll need for the rest of the lesson.”

Define as a group the following terms on large sheets of paper around the classroom. (Reservation, treaty, negotiate, sovereign/sovereignty, dialect) Sheets will be up around classroom until assessment is given.

30 min

Students follow along on guided notes sheet designed to mimic their text book pages.

Teacher Tasks
To set the stage, let’s first go back to 1853. The U.S. Congress had allocated $150,000 to explore and survey the land west of the Mississippi for a transcontinental railroad.

The newly nominated governor of the Washington territory and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Isaac I. Stevens, was to lead the party that would explore the northern route, from St. Louis to the Puget Sound. His job was also to negotiate treaties that would ensure peace among the many native people along the route and purchase portions of their homelands, creating reservations for the “tribes.”
Treaties are agreements between two or more sovereign states.
Sovereign states govern themselves. Think of sovereign states like independent countries. Indian tribes were originally considered independent nations with established borders and the power to govern themselves. Treaties brought Indian tribes into the United states with their sovereignty intact. BUT federal law and policy limited how much power they can actually use.

For example,
Why is it that I can’t buy firecrackers or bottle rockets in Bellingham but I can shoot off as many as I like on the Lummi peninsula?

You’re right. But tribal sovereignty does a bunch more than that. And when Isaac Stevens negotiated treaties with the tribes they talked about a lot more then fireworks.

They talked about fishing and hunting. They made military alliances.
They talked about how much land the nations got SHOW MAPS


This is a map of the Indian nations in 1854, the year before most treaties were signed.
And here they are in 1890.

Governor Stevens spent just 14 months traveling Washington Territory to make 10 treaties with the native populations. From the perspective of the U. S. Government, it was a remarkable achievement. From the perspective of the tribes, substantial pressure had been brought to bear upon them to cooperate and not every tribe was offered a treaty.

All of the negotiations took place in a language called Chinook Jargon. How many words do you think there are in the English language?
(Let them guess)

Do you know how many words Chinook Jargon has in it?
(Let them guess)

That is because it was a trade language and you don’t need many words to trade. Because it’s not that hard an idea, but in order to negotiate peace between two sovereign nations, that is a big idea, a hard thing to do we had to learn five new words just to talk about how it happened.

Gustav Sohon who was a white man at the treaty signings in 1855 & 1865 wrote,
“Why, when so many of them hated the idea, did the great chiefs of the Columbia Plateau sign treaties at Walla Walla? Many of the headmen (who were older and less rambunctious), believed that the young man’s idea of fighting for the old way of life was a lost cause. The chiefs did not think a war with the whites could be won and so they looked for the best possible outcome from the treaty.

As is often the case, however, the wisdom of the older men did not prevail over the passions of the younger men, and in the wake of Stevens’ whirlwind treaty tour, war broke out in Eastern Washington. These wars lasted for 30 years.

Right now I want you to turn over your text book pages and on the back you are going to write 3 things you think contributed to the conflict. You have three minutes and you may work with your table group and use page 92 and a half. But, if I think is getting out of hand I will shut it down immediately. Begin.

(If time have groups share their responses with the class. If running low on time have students raise their hands when they have finished, and have them use that time for their assessment)
While this is happening, remove vocab posters.
Give Assessment.
Student Tasks

Ss will follow along with guided notes filling in blanks. (guided notes attached, See worksheet page 91 and a half)
Closure 5 min
Ask students to write down their opinion (bottom of assessment: ungraded) of adding to their textbook.
Do you think this information needs to be in the text book? Why? Why not?

Instructional Materials, Community Resources, and Technology:
Textbook, Washington in the Pacific  Northwest, PowerPoint, Worksheet Page 92 ½

School-Home Interactions: Students will be reminded/ informed of local landmarks throughout the unit, including the “tin rock” made from years of fish canning, the Whatcom museum, and the Chinese Dead Line marker in Fairhaven (All free to see and on the bus lines) if they would like to visit on their own and report back from their field research. There are no tie-ins for tribal treaties trips but I am looking for an appropriate one.